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The marijuana industry in the U.S., once a prohibited and shadowy operation, is now thriving. Pot is currently legal for medical use in 23 states and for recreational use in 4 states.

As the Wild West of cannabis continues to take shape, problems have arisen on the home front. In Washington State, government officials have all but closed the medical marijuana shops. The recreational stores, meanwhile, still face the stigma that they are all about getting people high and making money. That stigma extends to legitimate patients as well, and those who use medical cannibals to treat documented diseases are the true losers in this new consumerist world of marijuana.

One part of the marijuana and hemp plant that’s legal in all 50 states and currently being shipped across state lines is the CBD, or cannibanoid, of the plant. This is the non-psychoactive component that some say is the true medicine of pot.

Party SceneWith all the information coming out from university research programs to actual doctors touting the amazing benefits of CBD, we at Dish thought it would be good to shed light on the industry and bring to rest some misconceptions.

CBD, which is one of 60 compounds found in hemp and marijuana plants, acts on the body’s endocannabinoid system, creating physical changes in the body. Scientists are just now learning in what ways CBD, either ingested or applied topically, can be beneficial. But even CBD is not free of controversies.

One controversy that has sprung up between hemp and marijuana farmers is that usually one camp will consider their CBD better, or purer, than the other. This sometimes-vicious debate might be fueled by the amount of money there is to be made in the CBD arena, which is by some accounts the largest growing segment in the $1.8 billion industry of medical and recreational marijuana.

The differences between the CBD in hemp and marijuana, and a closer look at the plants themselves

Will Klidon
Three years ago, a young man discovered he had a passion for helping people, and so he started a hemp-based CBD company called Ojai Energetics Will Klidon is an exceptionally bright 26-year-old from the Ojai Valley in California. Will holds the patent on a water-soluble process that he says makes the CBD more bio-available, meaning it is more readily absorbed into the body.

He brings the CBD in from Germany and a GMP facility in Nevada manufactures his product. The product is made under the same regulations and processing guidelines as herbal products that are available on store shelves. Because his CBD is brought into the US as partial hemp material—the stem and stalk, to be exact—and then processed under federal standards, it has a 0.3% THC count, “which,” he points out, “meets the FDA requirements.” This means you don’t have to go to a pot shop to buy it. As a matter of fact, he says, you can get it online or at your local health food stores on the west coast. He is working on distribution channels across the country.

Some things to know

Marijuana is primarily grown for its flowers or “buds.” Pot is a full-bodied plant with a heavy display of leaves and bud, which is high in THC, the psychoactive compound the plant is best known for. THC is what makes pot a drug in the eyes of the federal government. The hemp plant is not known for flowering or budding like the marijuana plant and is typically low in THC. As mentioned above, THC works on the endocannabinoid system much differently than CBD does, so although Marijuana Budit is a similar compound, scientists speculate that it does not have all of the same benefits as CBD. However, research has shown that THC can have a positive effect on pain relief, PTSD, poor appetite, and more. As anyone who’s been a teenager (or perhaps college student) knows, due to the psychoactive effects of THC, a person may experience a “high” of a varying degree when smoking or ingesting pot.

On the other hand, CBD can be associated with many of the opposing effects of THC. CBD has been linked with the ability to reduce nausea and anxiety. It may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-psychotic properties. Some say it even has tumor-fighting properties and the ability to lower levels of depression. What a wonder drug!

Dish sat down with Will Klidon to discuss his CBD operation and philosophy.

Dish Can you explain what made you choose hemp CBD over marijuana CBD?

Will I was looking for a CBD product for personal use and was surprised to find that when I searched Marijuana Greenhouseonline, CBD was being sold on Amazon. I did some research and found that if it is derived from hemp stalk and stem, it could be sold in all 50 states. I knew from my own experience how much a difference CBD had made in my life (and) that many others would want to have access to it in non-medical or recreational cannabis states. I wasn’t satisfied with any hemp CBD products on the market so I set out to create the most effective, safe and ethical CBD that I personally would want to take.

For a long time I thought that hemp was a distinct cousin of medical cannabis and was the male plant. I was mistaken. After research I discovered that the legal definition of hemp is any cannabis plant that produces 0.3% THC and less for the U.S. and many countries worldwide. Some countries the THC can be up to 0.6%. There are three varieties of cannabis, like there are different varieties of eucalyptus trees. They are cannabis indica, cannabis sativa and cannabis ruderalis. Any of these three types of cannabis could be legally considered hemp. However, the most common variety used by hemp farmers is cannabis sativa. This is because this variety produces tall plants, making better for fiber production. Cannabis ruderalis produces little THC and high CBD. However (it) is short and is not used for commercial hemp. Medical cannabis strains are either a sativa or an indica, or a hybrid. They have been cultivated and bred to produce higher and higher THC, and CBD was not considered as people were selecting for the inebriating effects of THC.

There has been a ton of misinformation spread saying CBD from hemp is less effective than CBD from medical cannabis. There is nothing further from the truth. Hemp is a human-made concept that was created by Dr. Ernest Small who stated there was no real point in which marijuana and hemp differed and that 0.3% was the line he drew. The psychoactive limit of THC is around 1%. The body doesn’t react differently to human semantics. It does, however, act differently to different ratios of CBD to THC. The well-known medical cannabis strain “Charlotte’s Web” would legally classify as hemp! The CBD from cannabis sativa plant known as “Charlotte’s Web” is no different than the CBD from a cannabis sativa plant known as Fedora 17. The only difference is one is known as medical cannabis and the other is known as hemp by the general public, and both would legally be considered hemp. For those who want the vast benefits of CBD without psychoactive effects, a CBD-rich cannabis strain that produces 0.3% THC or less is the way to go.
Ojia Oil

My company uses sativa strains grown in Europe that are legally hemp due to the THC levels, that are high in CBD. We can only use the stalks and stems of the plant, and not the flowers to be legal in all 50 states. We extract all the cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant through CO2 extraction methods. Our products have a CBD to THC ratio of around 25:1 making them non-psychoactive. Our bodies don’t care whether the cannabinoids and terpenes and other phytonutrients come from the stalk or the flower as long as they are all there. The only difference is that you need a lot more stalk and stem to get the same amount of CBD and other cannabinoids than you would from the flower. We will use hemp flowers as a source as soon as the Farm Bill allows use for interstate commerce as it would enable us to lower our prices. However, for the end user, their body would react no differently whether it comes from the stalk or stem or flower, or whether it’s a “medical” cannabis sativa strain called Charlotte’s Web that’s technically hemp, or a “hemp” cannabis sativa.

One thing that is very important is that the plants … grown in organic conditions as cannabis plants are amazing at ‘bioremediation.’ This means that they will ‘suck up’ contaminants in the soil they are grown in. Great for the soil, but not great if you want to in turn use the plants for internal use. A lot of cannabis sativa plants are grown in China as hemp for fiber purposes, and now with CBD exploding in public awareness, many are extracting those plants for human consumption. The problem is that these CBD extracts are filled with heavy metals. We only use plants grown in strict organic conditions in northern Europe for the sole purpose of extracting for human consumption. We then third party test each batch for heavy metals, VOCs, microbes, terpenes and cannabinoids to ensure people know what they are putting in their bodies every single time.

So long story short, I chose ‘hemp’ because we can deliver the same amazing health benefits to people all over the world instead of being stuck selling in only designated states like California and Colorado.

Dish Why is it important to have a small amount of THC available with the CBD and how do they work together?

Will It is absolutely vital that there is some THC present in order for the CBD and all the other cannabinoids to work effectively. It hasn’t been understood why yet, but the human body needs all of the constitutes, including some THC even if in minute amounts, for the CBD to be more available for use, or “bio-available.” That’s why we always use full-spectrum CO2 extracts, and then we take it one step further by making the oil encapsulated with tiny water bubbles using a certified organic plant and our patent pending process. That makes it the most bio-available we have ever found and the fastest acting. In reality a full spectrum extract contains a lot more than just CBD and THC. They have many other cannabinoids such as CBC, CBG, THC-a, CBD-a, CBN and many more. Each one of those has their own unique benefits that we are still discovering. Beyond just cannabinoids which are a special type of compounds known as terpenes, there are other terpenes that are not cannabinoids but have a slew of heath benefits and are what make the plant have different smells and tastes. Along with cannabinoids and other types of terpenes, a CO2 extract can have other nutrients such as polyphenols and chlorophyll. There are people putting out crystal CBD and products formulated with crystal CBD which has no THC in it, and none of the other vital components of a full spectrum extract. When you isolate just the CBD, you are changing how nature developed it, which is a safe and balanced and most effective mix of things. Isolating it and not having any THC doesn’t make it dangerous to our knowledge, but makes it much less effective.

High Street

Dish CBD is illegal to grow in the US. Can you explain what the process is for it to be made legal?

Will Sure! Due to the prohibition of cannabis in the U.S., it has created a very strange and fascinating legal environment. In 1936 the U.S. banned all cannabis from being grown and used in the United States. This was well before humans knew the components of it such as THC and CBD and other cannabinoids. Prior to this, cannabis had long been grown and used for many purposes in the U.S. from fiber production and use in medicine. It was at one point against the law for colonies not to grow cannabis. The United States Constitution was written on cannabis paper and the first U.S. flag was made of it. When writing the law that banned it they made an exception to the stalks and stems, oil from the stalks and stems, seeds, oil from the seeds, and cakes made from the seeds. They made an exemption to the exemption, which was for the resin of the stalks and stems. This exemption defined resin as psychoactive material. The term resin that is used now is not what they meant as resin back in 1936. In 2001 the DEA tried to prevent companies from selling hemp seeds and hemp seed oil that had trace amounts of THC in them. These trace amounts were due to contamination from the flowers the seeds were harvested from, and cannot get you high. The Hemp Industry Association sued the DEA and a landmark decision was made in the 9th Circuit Federal court. The judge set legal precedent stating that hemp was clearly exempted from the CSA and that any cannabinoid, including THC was not illegal as long as it was from the stalk and stem, oil, hemp seeds or hemp seed oil and in non-psychoactive concentrations. She then stated that what they meant by resin in the exemption was psychoactive concentrations of THC. This landmark decision is what allows the oil to be extracted from stalk and stem from plants that produce below 0.3% THC as long as the THC is not in a psychoactive concentration, which is 1% THC or less.

Medical BadgeWe choose to ensure that the THC is below 0.3% as that is what has been defined as hemp in the 2014 Farm Bill. The HIA vs. DEA case did not, however, allow for cannabis to be grown in the U.S., so we must use cannabis grown outside of the US that is legally a hemp. The 2014 Farm Bill re-defined hemp as the entire cannabis plant that has .3% THC or less, and will allow flowers and leaves to be used as well. However the Farm Bill defines it only for research and market research purposes in states that allow hemp to be grown, and doesn’t allow for interstate commerce of hemp, to the best of our knowledge, yet. None of this is really logical; however, bureaucracy rarely is. The good news is, however, the 9th Circuit ruling was very logical and allows for CBD produced from stalk and stem of cannabis grown outside the US as hemp to be legal in the United States. The Farm Bill is also a great step in the right direction and logically defines hemp as the whole plant and not just parts of the plant. Sooner than later, we will be able to use cannabis grown in the U.S. as hemp, and extract the CBD and other cannabinoids from the flowers.

Hemp CBD has also been shown to be safe to use by all—children, pregnant or nursing women, and those who cannot take pharmaceutical medicines who may want to use it as an alternative remedy.

Wooden Marijuana Stamps

Dish Can you address what all of these various processes look like, water-soluble vs. alcohol, and how does water-soluble make it more bio-available?

Will Cannabinoid-rich oil is what is known as lipophillac. Lipophilac means that it ‘loves fat’ or is soluble in—dissolves into—fats, and passes through fat membranes easily. It is lipophillic because it is mostly made of oils and fats. Since it is lipophillic it is by definition hydrophobic, which means it doesn’t like water and cannot dissolve into water and pass through water membranes.  All of these funny names are important because it affects how much CBD we can get into our body by eating cannabioid rich oil. Our mouth, stomach, and intestines are lined with a layer of water. Oil and water don’t mix. So in order for the cannabinoid rich oil to get into our bloodstreams where it can work its magic, it needs to change from lipophillic to hydrophilic. The oil won’t absorb in the mouth and will sit in the stomach waiting for the transformation to occur. The body has to dump enzymes into the stomach to emulsify the oil to make it past the water layer to make it into the blood stream. It takes about 30 minutes for this to happen and by the time it’s in the blood, 90% of the cannabinoids has been destroyed. So if you eat 10mg of CBD from a regular CBD extract, only 1mg actually makes it into the blood. Alcohol dissolves fat compounds into it such as CBD and other cannabinoids, which makes it an effective extraction method. However when taking an alcohol extract, the body still has to emulsify the cannabinoids, the same as a CO2 extract, before it can get into the blood. 

Our company has created a method that encapsulates the cannabinoid CO2 extract in a tiny, nano-sized bubble of a water-soluble layer of a certified organic saponin known as quillaja. We have created a truly water soluble cannabinoid oil so that the when taken it goes directly through the water layers of the mouth and stomach. The body thinks it is taking in a water instead of an oil. Once in the blood, the oil breaks out of the water-soluble bubble so it can get to the proper places it needs to go. This has made our CBD the fastest acting available and vastly improves how much makes it into the blood. We estimate ours is at least 10 times more bio-available, meaning taking 10mg of our CBD is the equivalent of taking 100mg of a regular CBD oil!

Dish I have tried CBD oil made with olive oil as well as hemp oil and it taste horrible what is the shelf stability of olive and hemp oil vs. a glycerin base?

Will The bad taste is most likely due to the fats going rancid. While they have wonderful health benefits, they are not very bio-available delivery systems and don’t last long without adding preservatives. Once they go rancid they can do more harm then good. We choose certified organic coconut glycerine for our base because it can absorb the water-based CBD oil and naturally preserve it without harmful preservatives. You want to make sure that glycerine bases are certified organic and corn and soy free as most are made from GMO corn or soy, and if they are organic they still are likely from soy which isn’t the healthiest for you our your loved ones. / Issue 177 - September 2018
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